Chapter 1 Nature and Significance of Management Revision Notes

Chapter 1 Nature and Significance of Management Revision Note

Business Studies Class 12

Chapter 1 Nature and Significance of Management

Revision Note

 

  1. Concepts of Management

 

Management is the art of getting things done with and through others. Management can be defined as, the process of getting things done with the aim of achieving organizational goals effectively and efficiently.

Management is a Goal-Oriented Process

2.  Characteristics of Management

An organization’s existence is based on objectives and management is the process that unites the efforts of every individual to achieve the goal.

(ii)  Management is All Pervasive 

The use of management is not restricted, it is applicable in all organization’s big or small, profit or non-profit-making.

(iii)  Management is Multidimensional

It does not contain one activity, it is a complex activity including three main activities

  • Management of house
  • Management of people
  • Management of operations
(iv)  Management is a Continuous Process 

It is a never-ending process. It consists of series of interrelated functions which perform continuously.

  • Management is a Group Activity Organization is a collection of many individuals, every individual contributes towards achieving the goal.
(vi)  Management is an Intangible Force

It cannot be seen or touched only it can be felt in the way the organization functions.

3.  Objectives of Management

Objectives can be classified into organizational, social, or personal
(i)  Organizational Objectives
  • Survival It exists for a long time in the competition
  • Profit It provides a vital incentive for the continued successful
  • The growth Success of an organization is measured by the growth and expansion of
  • Social Objectives Involves creation of benefit for
  • Personal Objectives Objectives of employees like good salary, promotion, social recognition, healthy working

5.  Importance of Management 

  • Management Helps Achieving Group Goals It integrates the objective of the individual along with organizational goals.
  • Management Increases Efficiency It increases productivity through better planning, organizing, directing the activities of the organization
  • Management Creates a Dynamic Organization Organization have to survive in the dynamic environment thus manager keep changes in the organization to match environmental changes.
  • Management Helps in Achieving Personal Objectives Through motivation and leadership, management helps in achieving the personal
  • Management Helps in the Development of Society It provides good quality products and services, creates employment, generates new technology in that sense it helps in the development of society.

6.  Management as an Art 

    Management as an art because it satisfies the following points

  • It is based on practice and
  • Lots of literature is present which gives the existence of theoretical

7.  Management as a Science

Management as a science because

  • It is a systematized body of
  • Its principles are based on
  1. Management as a Profession It does not meet the exact criterion of a profession, it does have some features of a profession
  2. Levels of Management (i) Top Management It consists of senior-most executives who are usually referred to as the Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, President, and Vice
  • Middle Management is usually division heads who are the link between top and lower level of management.
  • Operational Management is usually the foremen and supervisors who actually carry on the work or perform the activities.

10.  Functions of Management

  • Planning It refers to deciding in advance what to do, how to do and developing a way of achieving goal efficiently and
  • Organizing It refers to the assigning of duties, grouping tasks, establishing authority, and allocating resources required to carry out a specific
  • Staffing implies the right people for the right
  • Directing involves leading, influencing, motivating employees to perform the task assigned to them.
  • Controlling refers to the performance measurement and follow-up actions that keep the actual performance on the path of the plan.
  1. Co-ordination—The Essence of Management Co-ordination means binding together all the activities such as purchase, production, sales, finance to ensure continuity in the working of the organization. It is considered as a separate function of management, in order to achieve harmony among individuals, efforts towards the accomplishment of goods.

12.  Characteristics of Co-ordination

  • It integrates group
  • It ensures units of action
  • It is a continuous process.
  • It is an all-pervasive function.
  • It is the responsibility of all managers.

13.  Importance of Co-ordination

  • Growth in Size When there is a growth in size, the number of people employed by the organization also increases. Thus to integrate the efforts, coordination is needed.
  • Functional Differentiation In an organization, there are separate departments and different goals. The process of linking these activities is achieved by coordination.
  • Specialization Modern organization is characterized by a high degree of specialization. Coordination is required among different specialists because of their different approaches, judgment, etc.
  1. Management in the Twenty-First Century Management in the 21st century means the new ways, trends, ideas, and techniques of doing business and makes it possible to think of the organization as a ‘Global Organization.’ 
Chapter 1 Nature and Significance of Management Revision Note
Chapter 1 Nature and Significance of Management
Revision Note

Human Rights of Street Children: A Major Social Legal Issue of the Indian Society

Human Rights

Human Rights of Street Children:

A Major Social Legal Issue of the Indian Society

Author– Prerna Mohan[1]

 

Introduction

A nation is not considered wealthy only by its economical structure or natural resources but more decidedly by the quality and kind of wealth of its children and youth. As children are considered to be the future of the nation, it becomes the responsibility of the society and nation to mother a healthy, strong and intellectual child or youth. But the irony of this world is that not every child is fortunate enough to enjoy even their childhood and get to live a basic and normal life. Education, freedom to express, a playful childhood, shelter, health, hygiene, love and care are the basic needs of ones life and important for both physical, mental and spiritual growth of a child. The problem is that, that not every child is fortunate enough and that many are forced to live a life which is absolutely inhumane and these children are the ones whom the society label as “street children”.

There is no specific definition of street children but they form a subcategory of destitute children. It is a term which basically denotes those children who live in a state of penury, are homeless, abandoned and have taken streets has their home, selling their bodies to strive. These children are constantly subject to exploitation, abuse by unsocial elements which pull them into practices like begging, bonded labour, prostitution or many unethical and anti-social activities for their material gains. These things raise many question but the foremost and the most important one is that what is the stand of law in providing this vulnerable group of the society those basic human rights which are guaranteed at international level and by our own Constitution as well.      

 

Street Children and the Indian Society

The very first thing which comes to one’s mind when that person comes across the word “street children” is that a child roaming on streets in torn clothes and bare feet either begging or selling something, trying to find money or food from the heap of garbage or washing cars etc. to earn some money so that he or she can get to eat something for their bare survival.

India as we know is a poverty stricken country where more than half of the population live below the poverty line and this situation is swelling up. There are many families who come to cities in search of work but ultimately land up in a state where they don’t even get to have a onetime meal properly and the streets become their habitual abode or source of livelihood. Children of such families a likely to step into anti-social activities like begging, child labor etc. But it is not only these children who fall in the trap or in hands of unsocial elements. A child is considered to be vulnerable and innocent, unaware of the worlds evil face and to this advantage they get exploited by many inhuman and insensitive people. In India poverty has such deep roots that to sustain themselves families put their children to work rather than sending them to school for getting education. That is the reason that in spite of the Constitutional provisions which stand up against and prohibits child labour, a disturbing rise in the number of children working on streets has been observed over the years. Some estimates reveal that in India number of street children has reached up to 18 million. Though the Indian Government has formulated various public policies in past few years concerning street children but their ineffectiveness has led to a rise in the numbers unexpectedly, as their needs are not assessed and addressed appropriately.

Also the Indian society is not the one who welcomes all with equal respect and we do look down upon these vulnerable groups and unfortunate children as chattels and petty people. Our society has built up a mindset which doesn’t welcome these children to stand on the same footing as ours would. We expect equality in treatment and every other thing and move the courts if our rights get infringed in any way but we fail to understand that these people and children are also the creation of God Almighty and they to have the right to live a normal and peaceful lives where they are treated equally like we expect to be. We fail to understand that these children are equally entitled to get educated, have nutritious food, a shelter to live, a family to come home to and a society to accept them. The society fails to understand that it is not the choice of these children that they are born in such families or are put in to such activities, but somewhere we are the reason to their bedraggled and poor conditions.

 

 

Causes and Problems

It will be wrong to say that street children choose to be on streets, sometimes it is because of their families and sometimes due to some unsocial elements. There are many factors which pull or push children of tender ages to the streets. Some of these factors of streetism are-

  1. Poverty is one of the major factor which not only takes children to the streets but the entire families too so that they can earn something either by begging or selling things on road to survive. The rapid urban growth attract rural families to migrate to cities and towns in hopes of earning a better livelihood. But the glamorous life of the cities is not that easy to survive and these people land up unemployed having no place to live, nothing to eat and these circumstances open their way to streets. Children often drop out from schools so that they can help in earning a living for themselves and their families.
  2. The second factor is the neglect and abuse by the parents or relatives and peer group influence. These things have a major affect on a child’s mind and to run away from such situations the child gets compelled to leave the parental or guardians house. These children migrate to cities in search of work in order to fulfil their basic needs. These situations give others a good chance to get hold of the child and put him or her to prostitution, beggary or child labour or to many other criminal activities too.
  3. The third situation is where a child is abandoned, gets kidnapped or gets separated from his or her family due to any natural calamity, war etc. A child is abandoned by his or her parents in situations where parents fail to even their fulfil basic needs and consider child to be a burden. Another reason to this is gender discrimination which often leads to abandoning of the girl child as parents consider her to be a burden and some fortunate enough land up in an orphanage etc. rest are compelled to take streets as their place of work and home. As a result of this these children usually become prone to the perils of sexual abuse, prostitution, beggary, drug paddling, to many criminal activities and sometimes fall in shackles of slavery too.

The socio legal issues related to street children are numerous. But the problems which generally come into picture are related to exploitation of these children either mentally, physically, economically or sexually. They live a life where there is a constant danger of getting exploited at the hands of many people because they are not educated, lack parental guidance and security too. Not only are these children prone to exploitation but are also exposed to diseases, unhygienic conditions, malnutrition, hunger etc. Many a times these children are harassed by the employers and policemen as a result no complaints are logged because of wariness in police authority.

Though many legal safeguards are available against child exploitation and abuse and also for their development but there are many loopholes in them and many of these policies and legislations are not implemented properly to achieve the objective they are formulated for.

Example to such loopholes is that Section 359, 360, 361 talk about kidnapping but they mention that a child is said to be kidnapped when he or she is taken out of the keeping of the lawful guardian. But what will happen if a street child is kidnapped. A street child generally doesn’t have a guardian and are generally ones who are abandoned. This is a major reason that the complaints are not registered with the police because the absence of these children doesn’t affect or bother anyone. A similar example is Article 21-A of the Constitution which makes education a fundamental right and provides for free and compulsory education to children from 6 to 14 years of age, also Article 45 says that state should provide early childhood care and education to children until they attain the age of six years. But the application and execution of these provisions is very poor. Many children drop out of schools because of many family issues etc. and there is no one and no provision in legislations  to track these things and look into such problems to find a solution to them. A special officer or rapporteur in every region should be appointed by the Government to look into the problems of street children, understand them and address them to the Government so that they can together work to solve them and provide a better life and future to such children.

 

Street Children and Human Rights

The most sad part is that these children don’t even get to enjoy basic human rights. According to UNICEF (2002) the number of street children have increased to be more than 100 million around the globe. The numbers have reached to approximately 18 million in India where it is not surprising at all to know that more than 50 percent of them have experienced physical,  sexual and verbal violence.

After a survey was done it came to be known that more than half of these children are found using tobacco and cigarettes, etc. at a very young age and though it is prohibited to sell tobacco to children below 18 years of age the supplier and sellers without even considering the age of the buyer flours the stuff among these children. Chewing tobacco at this age and that too continuously may lead to cancer and many other problems.

Sometimes these children are detained unnecessarily by policemen and are abused and tortured, physically, mentally and sexually.

These children are prone to sexual abuses which make them vulnerable to health hazards like cancer, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS etc.

The Indian Constitution too recognizes right to live with dignity and protection of personal liberty. But unfortunately these basic rights like right to lead a healthy life, right to livelihood, right to education, food etc. are just limited to books or to the rest of the society excluding street children. These children suffer because of the greedy nature of some anti-social elements and atrocious attitude towards them.

 

Legal Safeguards

Apart from the Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy which provide for protection of children, prohibition of child labour, free and compulsory education, directs state to work for the welfare of children, there are many other legislations and policies laid by the Government for protection and betterment of these children.

  1. Article 24 of the Constitution states that no child under the age of 14 should be employed to work in factories, mines or any type of hazardous work.
  2. Article 23 of the Constitution deals with prohibition of trafficking of human beings, begar and all forms of forced labour. To this effect Immoral Trafficking (Prevention) Act, 1956 was enacted under the power that was given to the Parliament by Article 35 of the Constitution. The apex court directed the state to eradicate child abuse and prostitution and also to work towards rehabilitation and safeguarding victims of child prostitution by initiating various programs[2].
  3. The Child Labour Prohibition Act, 1986 works on the same lines as that of Article 24 of the Constitution and aims at prohibiting employment of children especially who are under the age of 14 in factories and hazardous industries instead regulating employment in non-hazardous industries. The act focuses on children who are employed by others and not on ones who are self-employed. There is one loophole in it, as we have seen children often collecting garbage and picking rags which indeed involves various hazards to health and life. But these children are not covered under this legislation.
  4. Also back in 2001 a bill named The Street Children (Protection of Rights) Bill , 2001 was proposed in the Parliament which recognized that street children too have the rights like right to healthy life, education, training, security of life and protection etc. for proper growth and development both physically and mentally. It was also proposed that a Commission for Street Children to be established at National level and Street Children Development Fund in order to achieve the objective of the Bill. But unfortunately this Bill has not been passed till date.

 

Concluding Comments

No matter how many policies or legislations the Government makes for the protection and upliftment of these children they will have no effect till the time they hit the root causes of the phenomenon. Steps should be taken to implement compulsory primary education scheme properly so that every child gets the benefit of it no matter if he or she is a street child or a child from a well to do family and also a check should be kept that children don’t drop out from schools for reasons to work or anything else. Also measures should be taken to provide these children with basic facilities like shelter, food etc. so that they don’t get down to streets in search of work or food. Government should extend help to NGO’s which seriously work towards helping such children to get out of the lamentable state and also provide legal help and representation whenever required. Also the Government should work on removing disparities and loopholes from various legislations related to children and their protection. Also people should be made aware of the problems and atrocities the street children face so that the society come hand in hand to find out solutions to these problems and extend as much help as they can by changing their behaviour towards these underprivileged children. In this way their basic human rights can be saved. It’s just the matter of change in our approach and mindset which will change us from being inhuman towards them.

[1] 2nd Year B.A.LLB student, Section B, 41151103818, Delhi Metropolitan Education, GGSIP University.

[2] Vishaljeet v. Union of India, AIR 1990 SC 1412.

Extra Judicial killings in 21st century

Extrajudicial

“Vikas Dubey will be killed within a week in the encounter,” I said to my father. But no one expected the manner in which he was killed. It looked like the story of a movie which I had watched earlier, I even tried to believe the story of how he was killed in the encounter but considering the facts I was not able to. According to a senior police official, Vikas Dubey was killed in the encounter after a police vehicle carrying him from Ujjain to Kanpur (a distance of 700 km) met with an accident and when he tried to escape from the spot in the Bhauti area after snatching a gun from the police, he was killed by the policemen.

           Many people will believe this story but it does not seem realistic to me, as I know that no mouse will create his own mousetrap. He knew the consequences if he ran away, and he would have not surrendered in the first place. On prima facie view, it looks fishy, and only god, policemen, and Vikas knew what happened there.

 

Judicial killings in 21st century
Judicial killings in 21st century

 

 

                        EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS

In India, the death sentence can be awarded only on the rarest of the rare instances – by the Supreme Court of India – after following the due process of law.

The term extrajudicial killing is used for executions done by the state outside the due process of law. Encounters really satisfy the common man because of the long delay in the justice delivery system. They see encounters as speedy justice but are not aware of the problems and misuse of this. It is obvious that a man who has been tortured and being done wrong by the goon is happy when the goon is killed in the encounter. It is also possible that the killing eliminates any further proof of other persons involved. (Many experts say that Vikas safety was a threat to many who colluded with him and protected him, he would have exposed many names ruining the career of many). These are some problems associated with extrajudicial killings. Authorities start misusing power for personal avenge and some even do it for money and many innocent lives are lost. Their right to life under article 21 is surely violated.

Is Encounter Killing an offense

  The only two circumstances in which such killing would not constitute an offense are

 1- If death is caused in the right of private defense

2.If it is necessary to arrest the person accused of an offense punishable with death or imprisonment for life – under Section 46 of the CrPC, which authorizes the police to use force, extending up to the causing of death, as may be.

But these are just circumstances according to which the police frames the encounter. Many of the encounters are pre-planned and I regard pre-planned encounters as nothing less than murder. It is only done to satisfy personal needs and policemen misusing this are also just criminals with uniforms. It is like a gang war between criminals and policemen. In the state of Uttar Pradesh criminals do not want of going out on bail .fearing of fake encounters .here the rule of gun rules over the rule of law.

 

The Supreme Court bench of chief justice R.M. Lodha and Justice Rohinton F. Nariman in 2014 outlined a 16-point guideline to follow in cases of death or grievous injury in police encounters.

As per the Supreme Court of India, every death at police hands must be recorded and investigated by an independent agency or a police unit not involved in the case.

 

The guidelines, in brief, are as follows:

1. Tip-offs about criminal activities must be recorded either in writing or electronic form.

2. If pursuant to a tip-off the police use firearms and this results in the death of a person, then an FIR initiating proper criminal investigation must be registered.

3. The investigation into such death will be done by an independent CID team which has to fulfill eight minimum investigation requirements.

4. A mandatory magisterial inquiry into all cases of encounter deaths.

5. The NHRC or State commission must be immediately informed of the encounter death.

6. Medical aid to injured victim/criminal and a magistrate should record his statement.

7. Ensure forwarding FIR and police diary entries to court without delay.

8. Expeditious and proper trial.

 9. Informing next of kin of the dead alleged criminal

 

10. Bi-annual statements of all encounter killings to be sent to the NHRC and state commissions by a set date in a set format.

 

11.Disciplinary action against and suspension of a police officer if found guilty of wrongful encounter.

 

12. Compensation scheme under the CrPC to be followed for awarding it to the kin of the dead victim.

 

13. Police officers must surrender their weapons for investigation, subject to rights under Article 20 of the Constitution.

 

14.Intimate the family of the accused police officer and offer services of a lawyer/counselor.

 

15.No out of turn gallantry awards for the officers involved in encounter killings.

 

16. The family of the victim can complain to the Sessions judge if it feels that these guidelines have not been followed. The judge will take cognizance

 

Conclusion

 

Unless it is for self-defense, all extra-judicial killings are otherwise unacceptable in a society of law.

‘The rule by gun’ should not be preferred to ‘the rule of law’. The fundamental premise of the rule of law is that every human being, including the worst criminal, is entitled to basic human rights and due process. Indeed in our country, the justice delivery system is slow but that does not make encounters justified. If your fan does not work you first try to repair it and see what the problem is, you just don’t go to the market and buy a new fan. If the justice delivery system is not working properly we need to look into it first and not just seek other alternatives which can be misused. RULE OF LAW MUST ALWAYS BE ABOVE THE RULE OF GUN.

 BY

Manvendra Singh

FACTORS WHICH ARE MITIGATING THE CREDIBILITY OF JUDICIAL SYSTEM

JUDICIAL

As we all know , there are four pillars of Indian Democracy  namely, Executive,legislature,judiciary and media. Legislature makes law ,executive implements that law and judiciary as a pillar interpretates the law.

It is believed that judiciary is one of the most trustable pillar for the people  because it gives justice to the people and it safeguards the rights of the citizens.

But disappointingly i have to say that today the faith and beliefs of person on judiciary is mitigating due to some factors are as follows-

  1. lengthy court proceedings

Once a complaint is filled in courts no one knows and no one is accountable to the people how far the trial will go and when the justice will be given.

Sometimes a case is dispose-of in two to three months and sometimes it doesn’t dispose of  even after the death of the parties involving in that dispute.in our judicial system  there is no provision given for  limitation period.it is well said that ‘justice delayed is equal to justice denied’.so where is the loopholes in our judicial system which are doing the proceding lengthy.

  • WITNESS BECOMES HOSTILE

witness becomes hostile means a witness at a trial who is so adverse to the party that called him or her that he or she can be cross examined as though called to testify by the opposing party.

In layman language it means when a witness of one party is giving statement in court which is contrary to what he has gave before trial is said to be hostile witness or witness becomes hostile.this problem of hostile witness is seemed almost in every cases. Hostile witness elongates the proceding because lawyers has to ask cross questions from  the witness who becomes hostile to prove the true facts of cases.this consumes so much precvious times of courts and make proceedings lengthy.

  • Absenteeism of lawyers

Just like any other govt sectors judiciary also suffers greatly due to absenteeism. Lawyers takes dates one after another from the judges for hearing their cases. Lawyers intentionally takes dates from that he or she can be cross examined as though called to testify by the opposing party.

In layman language it means when a witness of one party is giving statement in court which is contrary to what he has gave before trial is said to be hostile witness or witness becomes hostile.this problem of hostile witness is seemed almost in every cases. Hostile witness elongates the proceding because lawyers has to ask cross questions from  the witness who becomes hostile to prove the true facts of cases.this consumes so much precvious times of courts and make proceedings lengthy.

  • Absenteeism of lawyers

Just like any other govt sectors judiciary also suffers greatly due to absenteeism. Lawyers takes dates one after another from the judges for hearing their cases. Lawyers intentionally takes dates from post is that exams for judicial services are not conducted at regular and frequent intervals.it is also seemed that a exam is conducted in one year and its result is declared after 3-4  years after the exam.

The burden of all the pending cases falls on the limited no of judges  which gives them stress resulting in inefficiency in giving justice to the people.

 

  1. BIASNESS OF JUDGES

Biasness of judges is a concept of natural justice it is derived from a latin maxim ‘Nemo judex in causa sua’ which means no man shall be a judge in his own cause,or no man can act as both at the one and the same time a party or A party or a suitor and also a judge.

If this principle is violates then it shall be deemed that the justice is unfair and judges was bias but it is just a theoretical concept the reality is totaly contrary to this principle .

Today  many judgements is giving by judges in political party pressure,by taking bribes etc. This activity of judges shaken the people completely and their trust on judiciary goes into vain.

 

Conclusion

No one is criminal by birth but the society and the corrupt system making them criminals. All above mentioned factors are destroying the credibility of judicial system,only due to these factors no one has belief in  judiciary and that’s why they tried to solve the case in one day by taking revenge i.e eye for an eye.

Very disappointingly today i have to say that our judicial system is giving courage to the man who is actually a criminal to do more crimes because they know very well they can live same comfort  life even after committing heinious crimes   and  discourage them who is seeking for a justice and not just discourage them but also compelled them to do crimes by taking revenge.

There is a strong need of reform to the Indian  judicial system to give fair and impartial justice and eradication of above mentioned factors is very must otherwise that day was not far when rule of  law converts into  rule of strong people again.